Ships

Sailing ship used by the Vikings during the Middle Ages; it had square sails, oars and a prow and stern that were usually sculpted.

longship

steering oar stern stempost stay oar

click to hear

Rear end of a ship.

stempost click to hear

Main timber reinforcing the prow.

stay click to hear

Rope strung tautly from the top of the mast to the planking to stabilize the mast.

oar click to hear

Long piece of wood that is broad and flat at one end; it is mounted on the boat and pulled by one or more people to propel the boat.

galleonclick to hear

Large warship with sails that was used by the Spanish in the 17th and 18th centuries for trading with the colonies.

galleon

caravelclick to hear

Fast ship with three or four masts; it was used especially in the 15th and 16th centuries for exploration.

caravel

side-wheelerclick to hear

Ship used in the 19th century that was propelled by steam, which turned two paddle wheels.

side-wheeler

funnel paddle wheel
dugout-canoe

funnel click to hear

Tall pipe atop the engine that evacuates the steam and the combustion smoke.

paddle wheel click to hear

Wheel with blades that propels the boat; it is driven by a steam engine.

outrigger canoeclick to hear

Dugout canoe that is stabilized by one or two outriggers.

outrigger canoe

hull outrigger outrigger boom
junk

hull click to hear

Part of the boat’s structure that forms a watertight vessel.

outrigger click to hear

Piece of wood parallel to the hull that stabilizes the boat.

outrigger boom click to hear

Wooden pole connecting the outrigger to the hull.

junkclick to hear

Boat used in the Far East for fishing and transporting cargo; its sails are made of matting or canvas and are stretched by battens.

junk

rudder batten foremast mainmast mizzenmast

rudder click to hear

Submerged component that pivots on a vertical axle and is used to steer the boat.

batten click to hear

Rigid pole inserted into the sail’s batten pockets to maintain its shape.

foremast click to hear

Mast nearest the prow of the boat.

mainmast click to hear

Principal mast that is fixed approximately in the center of the boat.

mizzenmast click to hear

Mast on the stern of the boat.

feluccaclick to hear

A Mediterranean boat of ancient times that was propelled by a sail or an oar; it is still found today on the Nile.

felucca

mast rudder lateen yard

mast click to hear

Tall pole that is sometimes slightly inclined; it supports the lateen yard.

rudder click to hear

Submerged component that pivots on a vertical axle and is used to steer the boat.

lateen yard click to hear

Long inclined pole that is supported by the mast and rigged with a triangular sail.

examples of sailsclick to hear

Sails: sections of durable fabric that are sewn together and mounted on a mast; they create a surface that causes a boat to move when the wind blows against it.

examples of sails

gaff sail spritsail lug sail Bermuda sail lateen sail square sail

examples of rigsclick to hear

Rigs: various combinations of sails that distinguish one sailboat from another.

examples of rigs

brig brigantine whale boat ketch Marconi cutter schooner

masting and rigging [1]click to hear

Masting: masts, yards, ropes and other movable sailing equipment that support and manipulate the rigging.

masting and rigging [1]

side shroud backstay foremast mainmast poop gaff sail boom lift gaff topping lift jiggermast mizzenmast

sailsclick to hear

A sailboat’s sails that are rigged on the bowsprit, the foremast, the main masts, the jiggermast and between these masts.

sails

main sail main lower topsail foresail lower fore topsail inner jib middle jib outer jib flying jib upper fore topsail lower fore topgallant sail upper fore topgallant sail fore royal sail main upper topsail main lower topgallant sail main upper topgallant sail main royal sail halyard sheet mizzen sail spanker gaff topsail jigger topmast staysail jigger topgallant staysail mizzen royal brace mizzen topmast staysail reef point reef band
container-ship
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main sail click to hear

Lowest square sail on the mainmast.

main lower topsail click to hear

Square sail above the main sail.

foresail click to hear

Lowest square sail on the foremast.

lower fore topsail click to hear

Square sail above the foresail.

inner jib click to hear

Very heavy triangular staysail that lies farthest aft on the bowsprit.

middle jib click to hear

Triangular staysail that lies between the outer jib and the inner jib.

outer jib click to hear

Triangular staysail that lies between the flying jib and the middle jib.

flying jib click to hear

Very light triangular staysail that is foremost on the bowsprit.

upper fore topsail click to hear

Square sail between the lower fore topgallant sail and the lower fore topsail.

lower fore topgallant sail click to hear

Square sail between the upper fore topgallant sail and the upper fore topsail.

upper fore topgallant sail click to hear

Square sail below the fore royal sail.

fore royal sail click to hear

Small square sail at the top of the foremast above the fore topgallant sail.

main upper topsail click to hear

Square sail between the main lower topgallant sail and the main lower topsail.

main lower topgallant sail click to hear

Square sail between the main upper topgallant sail and the main upper topsail.

main upper topgallant sail click to hear

Square sail under the main royal sail.

main royal sail click to hear

Small square sail above the topgallant sail at the top of the mainmast.

halyard click to hear

Rope for hoisting a sail or a yard.

sheet click to hear

Rope extending from the lower corner of a sail for trimming it with respect to the wind direction.

mizzen sail click to hear

The lowest square sail supported by the mizzenmast.

spanker click to hear

Gaff sail for the mizzenmast.

gaff topsail click to hear

Sail above a gaff sail and between the gaff and the top of the mast.

jigger topmast staysail click to hear

Triangular sail below the jigger topgallant staysail.

jigger topgallant staysail click to hear

Highest triangular sail among the sails rigged between the mizzenmast and the jiggermast.

mizzen royal brace click to hear

Rope that causes the yard supporting the royal sail to pivot around the mizzenmast.

mizzen topmast staysail click to hear

Triangular sail on the stay supporting the aft fore-topmast.

reef point click to hear

One of several short ropes attached along the reef band on both sides of the sail for tying up the reefed sail.

reef band click to hear

Reinforced horizontal strip of canvas; a part of the sail can be gathered and tied to it to reduce the sail’s wind surface.

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