ANIMAL BIOLOGY

Snake

Morphology of a venomous snake: a limbless, elongated, cylindrical reptile.
Eye: organ of sight of a snake.
Head: foremost part of a snake.
Poison gland. venom-producing gland of a snake.
Neck: part of a snake between the head and the body.
Scale: each of the hard plates covering the body.
Forked tongue: forked organ in the mouth of a snake.
Glottis: opening in the larynx of a snake.
Tooth: organ used to crush food.
Fang: hard organ used to inject the venom of venomous snakes.
Venom canal: tube that carries the venom.
Nostril: nasal opening.

Internal anatomy of a turtle

Internal anatomy of a turtle: reptile with an oval shell and a horned beak. It has a very short tail and four short legs, and moves very slowly.
Trachea: the windpipe, which connects the larynx and bronchi of the tortoise.
Lung: respiratory organ of the tortoise.
Stomach: part of the digestive tract of the tortoise between the esophagus and the intestine.
Pancreas: gland in the tortoise that produces digestive enzymes.
Rectum: final part of the tortoise’s digestive tract.
Anus: outlet of the tortoise’s digestive tract.
Bladder: pocket in which urine collects before it is evacuated.
Ovary: egg-producing reproductive gland.
Intestine: part of the digestive tract of the tortoise after the stomach.
Liver: bile-producing digestive gland.
Heart: blood-pumping organ of the tortoise.
Esophagus: part of the digestive tract of a tortoise between the mouth and the stomach.

Skeleton of a turtle

Skeleton of a turtle: reptile with an oval shell and a horned beak. It has a very short tail and four short legs, and moves very slowly.
Skull: bony case of the brain of the tortoise.
Phalanges: small bones forming the fingers.
Humerus: arm bone.
Proscapular process: bone of pectoral girdle of a tortoise, situated in front of the coracoid.
Back bone: vertebral column of a tortoise.
Femur: thigh bone.
Tibia: one of the two leg bones.
Phalanges: small bones forming the toes.
Fibula: one the the two leg bones.
Pelvic girdle: set of bones to which the limbs of a tortoise are attached.
Coracoid: bone of the pectoral girdle of a tortoise.
Scapula: shoulder bone.
Radius: one of the two bones of the forearm.
Ulna: one of the two bones of the forearm.
Vertebra: each of the bones forming the spine of a tortoise.
Mandible: lower jaw of the tortoise.

Frog

Morphology of a frog: web-footed amphibian which lives near lakes and ponds. Moves by swimming and jumping.
Head: uppermost part of a frog.
Trunk: central part of a frog, to which are attached the head and limbs.
Belly: underside of the trunk.
Hind leg: rear limb of a frog.
Webbed foot: one of a set of jointed appendages that are connected by fine skin.
Web: fine skin connecting the fingers.
Front leg: front limb of the frog.
Digit: jointed appendage of the front leg.
Tympanum: hearing organ of the frog.
Nostril: entrance to the respiratory system of the frog.
Eye: sight organ of the frog.

Fish

Morphology of a bony fish: finned aquatic vertebrates animal with skin covered with scales. It lives in water and is usually oviparous.
Eye: sight organ of a fish.
Operculum: pair of rigid plates covering and protecting the gills of a fish.
Lateral line: central line dividing a fish lengthwise.
Spiny ray: spine travelling the length of a fin.
Dorsal fin: locomotive limb situated on the back of a fish.
Caudal fin: locomotive limb situated at the end of a fish.
Anal fin: locomotive limb situated behind the anus of a fish.
Pelvic fin: locomotive limb situated beneath the pelvic girdle of a fish.
Scale: each of the small hard plates covering a fish.
Pectoral fin: locomotive limb situated at the chest of a fish.
Mandible: lower jaw.
Mouth: entrance of the digestive tract.
Maxillary: bone forming the upper jaw.

Internal anatomy of a bony fish

Internal anatomy of a bony fish: finned aquatic vertebrates animal with skin covered with scales. It lives in water and is usually oviparous.
Brain: seat of the mental faculties of a fish.
Esophagus: part of the digestive tract connecting the mouth to the stomach.
Dorsal aorta: vessel in the back that carries blood from the heart to the organs.
Stomach: part of the digestive tract between the esophagus and the intestine.
Air bladder: pocket in which urine collects.
Spinal cord: part of the nervous system that connects the brain to all other parts of a fish.
Kidney: blood-purifying organ.
Urinary orifice: opening for eliminating urine.
Genital Orifice: opening related to the genital organs.
Anus: end of the digestive tract.
Gonad: hormone-secreting sexual gland of a fish.
Intestine: last part of the digestive tract.
Pyloric cecum: cul-de-sac related to the intestine.
Gall bladder: small sac containing the bile.
Liver: bile-producing digestive gland.
Heart: blood-pumping organ.
Gills: respiratory organ of a fish.
Tooth: hard organ of a fish used to shred food.
Eye: sight organ of a fish.
Olfactory bulb: bulging part of the smell organ of smell of a fish.

Insect

Morphology of a flying insect: vertebrate animal with segmented bodies, usually winged, that undergo metamorphosis.
Compound eye: one of two complex organs of sigh.
Antenna: one of two organs of touch of an insect.
Head: foremost part of an insect.
Fore leg: one of two front limb.
Thorax: central part of an insect.
Middle leg: one of two middle limbs of an insect.
Hind leg: one of two rear limbs.
Abdomen: rear part of an insect.
Hind wing: one of two rear appendages used for flying.
Fore wing: one of two front appendages used for flying.

Fly

Morphology of a fly (lateral view): flying insect of which there are numerous species, most of them noxious.
Wing: organ of aerial locomotion of a fly.
Thoracic stigma: respiratory orifice of a fly.
Balancer: stabilizing organ of a fly that takes the place of a rear wing.
Abdominal segment: part of the abdomen.
Femur: thigh bone.
Tibia: bone of the foreleg.
Hind leg: rear limb.
Tarsus: each of the bones that form the part of the rear leg below the tibia.
Middle leg: middle limb.
Mesothorax: central part of the thorax.
Mouth parts: parts related to the mouth.
Fore leg: front limb.
Antenna: organ of touch of a fly.
Arista: sensory organ composed of bristling hairs.
Compound eye: complex organ of sight of a fly.
Head: foremost part of a fly.
Prothorax: foremost part of the thorax.
Metathorax: rear part of the thorax.

Bee

Morphology of a bee: hive-dwelling social insect which produces honey and wax, see also carpenter bee.
Head: foremost part.
Thorax: central part.
Abdomen: rear part.
Wing: appendage of a bee used for aerial locomotion.
Segment: part of the abdomen.
Hind leg: rear limb.
Nail: pointed nail of a bee.
Middle leg: middle limb.
Fore leg: front limb.
Spur: projecting part of the foreleg of a bee.
Tarsus: each of the parts that make up the segment of the bee’s leg below the tibia.
Tibia: central part of the bee’s leg.
Femur: first part of the bee’s leg.
Mouth parts: parts of the mouth.
Compound eye: complex sight organ.
Antenna: touch organ of a bee.

Butterfly

Morphology of a butterfly: adult lepidopteran insect with wings covered with fine scales of various colors.
Apex: point of the butterfly’s wing.
Outer margin: outer part of the wing.
Nerve: projecting line on the wing.
Cell: part of the butterfly’s wing outlined by the wing veins.
Fore wing: foremost appendage of aerial locomotion of a butterfly.
Hind wing: rear appendage of aerial locomotion.
Thorax: central part of a butterfly’s body.
Hind leg: rear appendage of a butterfly used for terrestrial locomotion.
Abdomen: rear part of a butterfly’s body.
Segment: one of the portions of a butterfly’s body.
Middle leg: middle appendage of a butterfly used for terrestrial locomotion.
Nail: pointed nail of a butterfly.
Tarsus: last part of the leg.
Tibia: middle part of the leg.
Femur: first part of the leg.
Fore leg: front appendage of a butterfly used for terrestrial locomotion.
Proboscis: elongated mouth part of a butterfly.
Compound eye: complex sight organ.
Head: foremost part of the body of a butterfly.
Antenna: organ of touch of a butterfly.
Costal margin: projecting line on the side of a butterfly’s wing.

Spider

Morphology of a spider: arthropod animal with eight legs and an unsegmented body.
First leg: first locomotive appendage of a spider in relation to its head.
Nail: pointed nail.
Second leg: second locomotive appendage of a spider in relation to its head.
Abdomen: rear part of a spider’s body.
Third leg: third locomotive appendage of a spider in relation to its head.
Fourth leg: fourth locomotive appendage of a spider in relation to its head.
Spinneret: opening through which the spider emits its silk.
Tarsus: last part of the leg of a spider.
Metatarsus: fourth part of the leg.
Tibia: third part of the leg.
Patella: second part of the leg.
Femur: first part of the leg.
Eye: sight organ of a spider.
Chelicera: pair of venomous hooks on the spider’s head.
Pedipalp: tactile foot of a spider.

Bird

Morphology of a bird: a warm-blood animal with two wings, two feet, a horny beak and a body covered with feathers.
Thigh: top part of the leg of a bird.
Scapulars: shoulder feathers.
Back: back part of a bird’s thorax.
Nape: back of a bird’s neck.
Auricular region: part of a bird’s head related to the ear.
Crown: top part of a bird’s head.
Eye: sight organ of a bird.
Fore head: top part of the face.
Upper mandible: top part of the beak.
Lower mandible: lower part of the beak.
Beak: a set of upper and lower mandibles.
Chin: lower part of the face.
Throat: fron tpart of the neck.
Breast: front part of the thorax.
Wing covert: upper part of the wings.
Flank: side part of the body.
Belly: front of the abdomen.
Primaries: the largest feathers on the edge of a bird’s wing.
Secondaries: large feathers between the primaries and the tertials of a bird’s wing.
Tarsus: part of the leg of a bird below the thigh.
Foot: the end part of a bird’s leg.
Hind toe: jointed rear appendage.
Wing: appendage of aerial locomotio.
Under tail covert: feathers under a bird’s tail.
Tail feathers: feathers forming the tail of a bird.
Upper tail feather: feathers above the tail.
Rump: projection of the lower back.

Anatomy

Internal anatomy of a bird: a warm-blooded animal with two wings, two feet, a horny beak and a body covered with feathers.
Spinal column: part of the nervous system with the spinal column.
Lung: saclike respiratory organ.
Kidney: blood-purifying organ.
Ureter: duct that carries urine from the kidney to outside the body of a bird.
Cecum: cul-de-sac of the intestine.
Rectum: last part of the intestine.
Intestine: last part of the digestive tract.
Gizzard: last pocket of the stomach of a bird.
Liver: bile-producing digestive gland.
Heart: blood-pumping organ.
Crop: pocket formed by the bulding of the esophagus.
Esophagus: first part of the digestive tract.
Trachea: first part of the respiratory system.
Buccal cavity: chamber of the mouth.

Bat

Morphology of a bat: insectivorous mammal which flies on membranous wings.
Second digit: second jointed appendage in relation to the head of a bat.
Thumb: first jointed appendage in relation to the head of a bat.
Ulna: one of the arms bones of a bat.
Tragus: bone forming the ear.
Ear: organ of hearing.
Elbow: joint of the arm.
Radius: one of the arm bones.
Wrist: joint between the arm and the digits of a bat.
Finger membrane: membrane that forms the wing of the bat.
Knee: joint of the leg.
Foot: end of the leg, which is used to clutch.
Toe: jointed appendage of the foot of a bat.
Tail membrane: skin connecting the femurs.
Tail: extension of the spinal column.
Cutaneous muscles of the arm membrane: muscular organs on the surface of the wing.
Fifth digit: fift jointed appendage in relation to the head of a bat.
Fourth digit: fourth jointed appendage in relation to the head of a bat.
Third digit: third jointed appendage in relation to the head of a bat.

Cat

Morphology of a cat: carnivorous mammal of the feline family, with retractile claws. There are both wild and domestic varieties. Felidae is the biological family of the cats; a member of this family is called a felid.
Head: foremost part of the cat.
Ear: organ of hearing.
Neck: part of cat that connects the head to the trunk.
Back: top part of the trunk.
Hip: joint connecting the rear leg to the pelvis.
Buttock: fleshy part lelow the tail.
Thigh: upper part of the rear leg.
Tail: extension of the spine.
Hind leg: rear limb.
Belly: lower part of the abdomen.
Chest: lower part of the thorax.
Fore leg: front limb.
Shoulder: joint connecting the arm with the body.
Lip: fleshy part covering the teeth.
Whiskers: hairs on the cats muzzle.
Nose: opening of the respiratory system.
Eye: sight organ of the cat.

Dog

Morphology of a dog: carnivorous domestic mammal raised to perform various tasks for humans.
Ear: organ of hearing.
Nape: back of the neck.
Neck: part of a dog that connects the head to the trunk.
Withers: part fo the dog between the back, the neck and the shoulders.
Back: upper part of a dog’s trunk.
Hip: joint connecting the rear leg to the pelvis.
Rump: hindquarters of a dog.
Buttock: fleshy part under the tail.
Tail: extension of the spinal column.
Thigh: upper part of the rear leg.
Leg: lower part fo the rear leg.
Hock: point of the part of the rear leg below the knee.
Cannon bone: part of the rear leg behind the knee.
Hind leg: rear limb.
Belly: lower part of the abdomen.
Chest: lower part of the thorax.
Wrist: joint between the paw and the rest of the rear leg.
Fore leg: front limb.
Breast: front of the body of a dog.
Shoulder: joint that connects the foreleg to a dog’s body.
Cheek: part on the side of the head of a dog.
Mouth: entrance to the digestive tract.
Tip of nose: nose of a dog.
Nose: front of the head of a dog, just above the nose.
Eye: sight organ.
Fore head: upper part of the dog’s face.

Gorilla

Morphology of a gorilla: fruit-eating anthropoid ape. The largest and strongest of all apes.
Head: uppermost part of a gorilla.
Ear: organ of hearing.
Nape: back of the neck.
Shoulder: joint between the arm and the trunk of a gorilla.
Back: back of the trunk.
Chest: front of the thorax.
Belly: front of the abdomen.
Thigh: upper part of the rear limb.
Knee: joint of the rear limb.
Leg: lower part of the rear limb.
Foot: part of the end of the rear limb on which the gorilla walks.
Toe: jointed appendage of the foot.
Finger: jointed appendage of the hand.
Hand: prehensile organ at the end of the upper limb.
Wrist: joint between the hand and the forearm.
Forearm: middle part of the upper limb.
Elbow: joint between the arm and the forearm.
Arm: upper part of the front limb.
Neck: part of the gorilla that connects the head to the body.
Mouth: entrance to the digestive tract.
Nostril: entrance to the respiratory system.
Eye: sight organ of a gorilla.
Superciliary arch: bony prominence that forms the eyebrow.

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