Subject: قناة ١٠ الاسرائيلية عن الماسونية
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The Freemasons are a secret society that falls down slightly on one of the vital elements of being a secret society – the secrecy. Everyone’s heard of them, most people have a rough idea of what goes on behind the Lodge doors and there are a lot of notable people that have publicly admitted to being masons. To look down the list, it almost seems that being a mason is essential to success to life. From every sphere of life, we present the Top 10 Famous Freemasons.
10. Henry Ford
Many masons have made it to the top of their industries through masonic connections, but how many of those men live on in the popular imagination? One enduring name is Henry Ford, the man who revolutionized mass production with his Model T Ford. He even gave his name to the whole production line process, now known as “Fordism”. But Fordism was about more than just making cars quickly, it was also about giving workers rights and wages that they never had before. With his $5 workday, he improved conditions radically and forced competitors to do the same, ensuring the working man’s financial future was secure. As one of the pioneers of “Welfare Capitalism“, Ford not only changed industry forever, he also changed it for the better. He was also a member of Zion Lodge no.1.
9. Oscar Wilde
Freemasons aren’t just hard-nosed businessmen looking to get to the top – it’s also open to fey social commentators like Oscar Wilde. His father, Sir William Wilde, was a mason and it was his influence that enabled Oscar to get into Oxford. It was while he was at Oxford that he joined the Apollo University Lodge, partly under pressure from his father. In his maiden speech, he demonstrated his famous wit when he said of Order founder John the Baptist “I hope we shall emulate his life but not his death – I mean we ought to keep our heads”.
Wilde was an enthusiastic mason, spending a fortune on masonic gowns and it was this extravagance that would end his involvement with the masons. He was expelled from one lodge for owing another member money for the gowns, and then failed to pay his subscriptions to the Churchill Lodge, which saw him expelled altogether. A short but eventful masonic career.
8. Davy Crockett
The “King of the Wild Frontier” was a folk hero and politician, but also a freemason. It was while he was serving in Congress in Washington that he became a mason, and when he left to explore Texas he gave his masonic apron to the Weakly Lodge in Tennessee, where it still remains. His idea was to settle in Texas and move his family there, but sadly it never happened. While he was there, there was a surprise attack by Mexican soldiers and so the Battle of Alamobegan. When the battle was over, and the Mexicans had taken the fort, Crockett was discovered among the dead. It was later rumored that he surrendered and was executed, but others maintain that he fought to the death on the Texan side standing up, as ever, for the forces of good.
7. King George VI
One measure of just how high up the masons’ influence goes is the number of kings that have been masons. Many modern day British kings appear on the list – from William IV, predeccessor to Queen Victoria, to George VI, father of the present Queen. George ascended to the throne after the abdication of his brother Edward. One of the most controversial monarchs of the last few centuries, Edward VIII reigned for just a few months in 1936 before abdicating in order to marry divorcee Mrs Wallis Simpson. His struggle to gain confidence and overcome his stutter was well-documented in the film “The King’s Speech”, but it is less well known that he credits freemasonry with helping him do it. His speech therapist Lionel Logue was a masonic Master and worked with the Royal Masonic School. George himself was also very involved, and was reluctant to give up his masonic offices upon his ascent to the throne, as his brother had. Instead, a new position was created for him – Past Grand Master. A few years later, after the war, he wrote “Freemasonry has been one of the strongest influences on my life”. A powerful force indeed…
6. Nat King Cole
The famous singer was one of many black musicians who joined Thomas Waller Lodge No. 49, Los Angeles. He joined in 1938, alongside his drummer Lee Young, and stuck by his masonic principles throughout his life. Other prominent musicians of the time that were also masons included the Jazz legend Louis Armstrong, which led one mason to make a speech about the connections between Jazz and Freemasonry. In fact, even the Lodge Nat King Cole attended was named after a jazz musician – Fats Waller – who died around the same time that Cole joined. Cole himself died in 1965, a loyal mason to the end.
5. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Of course, it’s not just modern musicians who were masons. Notable classical composers can also be found among the Freemason ranks, including Bach and Mozart. Mozart joined a lodge in Vienna, called “Zur Wohltätigkeit” in 1784, 7 years before his death. He was an apprentice at first, but swiftly became Master, probably in 1785. In the same year, his lodge merged with another and formed the new lodge “Zur Neugekrönten Hoffnung”. To celebrate, Mozart composed two songs and these formed part of a much bigger body of work that had masonic influences, including “Kleine Freimaurer-Kantate” (literally “A Little Freemason-Cantata”) and “The Magic Flute“. Sometime, as with the Cantata, the influence was overt, other times it was incredibly subtle. For instance, the masons give great value to the number 3, so Mozart often used 3-part harmony. And a special dotted figure within the music was supposed to represent the knocking on the door during an initiation ceremony. One of the most famous and public freemasons in history.
4. Buzz Aldrin
Ever wondered where involvement in freemasonry might take you? Maybe to the moon? That what happened to Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin, who is famous as being the second man on the moon, after Neil Armstrong. A devoted mason, Aldrin took a masonic flag with him on the Apollo 11 craft and also special permission from the masons to claim “Masonic Territorial Jurisdiction for The Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of Texas, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, on The Moon”. He was also a devout Presbyterian, so had a home communion kit with him as well. He may not have been the first man on the moon, but he was certainly the first man to take communion on the moon!
3. Winston Churchill
The list of politicians who are also freemasons is staggeringly long and the great British Prime Minister was no exception. When he joined the order in 1901, it was all the rage, with the newly-ascended King Edward VII a former Grand Master. Churchill joined the Studholme Lodge, along with other MPs, knights and royalty and quickly became a Master Mason in the tradition of his ancestors before him. In fact, there was even a Churchill Lodge – the same one that Oscar Wilde managed to get himself expelled from. However, his Masonic career was shortlived, and he resigned from the lodge in 1911, after becoming First Lord of the Admiralty. This has led commentators to conclude that freemasonry wasn’t a vital part of Churchill’s success, although he did call in favors from his masonic contacts for years afterwards.
2. John Wayne
Another mason to follow family tradition, John Wayne was raised as a mason in July 1970, at Marion McDaniel Lodge 56 as his father had been before him. He was also very politically active, and at one point was asked to run for office on behalf of the Republican party. He declined, but supported his friend and fellow actor Ronald Reagan in his bid to become Governor of California. Wayne was never shy of controversy, believing in white supremacy and claiming that the American settlers had done no wrong when taking the Native Americans’ land. He was also a member of the ultra right-wing John Birch Society for a while. So he was both prominent and powerful – no wonder the masons welcomed him into their society at the end of his life.
1. George Washington
It won’t surprise you to know that there have been a fair few freemasons in the White House. After all, when a society is this powerful, you’d expect its members to reach the pinnacle of political success. So, Gerald Ford was a mason, and Roosevelts Teddy and Franklin. But one of the most famous presidents and the founder of America was also a mason. He was initiated in 1752, but apparently wasn’t the most dedicated in attending meetings. He declined a Grand Master position in 1777, saying that he had never even been a Master of a lodge. However, the year before he became president, he accepted the offer to become Master of the Alexandria Lodge in Washington, which is now the George Washington Masonic National Memorial. So, he may not have been the most dedicated member of the masons, but they certainly seem keen to claim him as one of their own!
Johann Sebastian Bach
German composer and keyboard player
J S Bach was a German composer and keyboard player. During his lifetime Bach was chiefly known for his masterful organ and harpsichord playing; his great genius as a composer was only really discovered in the 19th century. Bach wrote organ music, including choral preludes, preludes, fugues, and toccatas; orchestral and chamber works, including the Brandenburg Concertos; and church music, including the St Matthew Passion. Noteworthy among the collections of his keyboard works The Well-Tempered Clavier and The Goldberg Variations.
An engraving of Johann Sebastian Bach
Bach (left) with three of his sons
Johann Sebastian Bach
as Konzertmeister in 1715
A nineteenth century depiction of the Bach family at morning
music practice. Bach is at the keyboard and the other family
members are playing or singing.
George Frideric Handel
Handel was born in Germany but spent much of his life in England. Handel music includes many operas and oratorios, including that most famous of all oratorios, the Messiah. He also wrote the Water Music; the Music for the Royal Fireworks; and works in many other genres.
Handel in 1727
(painting by Balthasar Denner)
Handel at the piano
(painting by Sir James Thornhill)
Handel at 68
(painted by Thomas Hudson, 1756)
Italian composer and violinist
One of the most admired composers from the Baroque period, Vivaldi developed the three-movement concerto and wrote over 450 concertos (including many for the violin); operas, oratorios, motets, cantantas and other sacred music. His most popular work of Vivaldi music is The Four Seasons.
(Painting by François Morellon La Cave, 1723)
Ludwig Van Beethoven
Beethoven was a German composer and pianist. The vast output of Beethoven music includes nine symphonies such as the Eroica Symphony, the Pastoral Symphony and the great choral Ninth Symphony. Beethoven wrote much piano music such as the Pathetic, the Pastoral, the Moonlight, the Kreutzer, Waldstein, the Appassionata sonatas.
Beethoven at the age of 49 (at this time he was already completely deaf). He is shown working on the score of Missa Solemnis.
Beethoven in 1818
These pencil sketches show Beethoven walking the streets of Vienna deep in thought and with not a great deal of attention to his appearance.
Beethoven composing in his Vienna apartment in the latter part of his life.There are books and papers on the top of the piano and under it!
(Franz) Joseph Haydn
Haydn wrote over 100 symphonies and many string quartets, sonatas and piano trios. He was responsible for great developments in the classical style and forms, and he is often referred to as the “Father of the Symphony”. Other Haydn music includes masses, operas, and folk song arrangements.
(Painting by Thomas Hardy, 1792)
Haydn in 1794
(Drawing by George Dance)
Haydn at the keyboard, 1795
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Despite his short life, Mozart was a prolific composer. Mozart music includes many concertos, symphonies (such as the Jupiter), serenades (such as Eine kleine Nachtmusik); operas (such as The Marriage of Figaro and Don Giovanni), and much church music (such as the Coronation Mass).
(painting by Barbara Krafft)
Mozart in about 1789
(painting by Christian Vögel)
Mozart, aged 6, in court dress
Young Mozart at the piano
Berlioz was a French Romantic composer. Notable works of Berlioz music: the Symphonie fantastique; the symphonies Harold en Italie (Harold in Italy) and Roméo et Juliette; the concert opera, La Damnation de Faust (The Damnation of Faust); the opera, Les Troyens (The Trojans); and the oratorio, L’Enfance de Christ (The Childhood of Christ).
Hector Berlioz in Rome, 1832. Berlioz was the father of French Romanticism in music. He composed original work on a grand scale, and was seen as crazy by many. His wild hairstyle reflected his wild ways.
Hector Berlioz, 1850
(painting by Gustave Courbet)
Theme from Berlioz’s symphony, Harold en Italie (Harold in Italy) with the composer’s signature at the bottom
Bizet’s most famous work was the opera Carmen (1875), one of the most popular operas ever written. Other notable examples of Bizet music: Les Pêcheurs de perles (The Pearl Fishers); La Jolie Fille de Perth (The Fair Maid of Perth); and the incidental music to Alphonse Daudet’s play, L’Arlésienne.
Chopin’s music was mostly written for the piano. Chopin music includes piano sonatas, concertos, études (studies), nocturnes, preludes, scherzos, ballades, waltzes (such as the Minute Waltz), and mazurkas. Other well known Chopin works for the piano include the Barcarolle, Opus 60, the Fantasia, Opus 49, and the Berceuse, Opus 57.
in a seemingly pensive yet watchful mood
(Painting by Eugène Delacroix, 1838)
(Drawing by Rudolph Lehmann, 1847)
The writer, George Sand (1804-76),
Chopin’s lover during the 1840s
Hungarian composer and pianist
Liszt was perhaps the greatest piano virtuoso of his era as well as being one of the great composers of the Romantic era. Liszt music includes piano concertos, symphonies, symphonic poems, sacred choral works, and many works for the solo piano (such as the Liebesträume).
Liszt had the appearance of a tall, dark, handsome rock star. This is perhaps not a coincidence. Long before the days of Beatlemania, there was Lisztomania, and Liszt had crowds of frenzied female fans at his concerts.
Liszt performing at the piano. The year is 1840; the place is a salon in Paris. His audience includes famous writers and musicians, (left to right) Alexandre Dumas, Victor Hugo, Georges Sand, Niccolo Paganini, and Gioacchinio Rossini, as well as Liszt’s mistress, the Countess Marie d’Agoult.
Mendelssohn music includes the Overture to A Midsummer Night’s Dream; The Hebrides overture; the Scottish Symphony; the Italian Symphony; and the oratorios St. Paul and Elijah.
Cécile Jeanrenaud, whom Felix Mendelssohn married in 1837. Their marriage was a happy one and they had five children.
Rossini was an opera composer, and is especially well-known for his comic operas. Some of his great operas include Tancredi, The Italian Girl in Algiers, The Barber of Seville, Semiramide, William Tell and Cinderella.
Gioacchino Rossini in 1820
The great soprano, Isabella Colbran, whom Rossini married in 1822 and for whom he wrote many major roles in his operas
Schubert was a prolific writer of the German Lied (song for solo voice with accompaniment, often by piano). He wrote more than 500 songs. Some of his great song cycles were Die Schöne Müllerin (The Miller’s Beautiful Daughter), Die Winterreise (Winter Journey), and Schwanengesang (Swan Song). Schubert music includes many symphonies, including Symphony in C Major (the Great), masses, string quartets and other chamber music (such as the Trout Quintet), operas, and piano works.
Franz Schubert with book
Robert Schumann wrote many Lieder (solo songs) such as Myrthen (Myrtles), the two Liederkreise (Song Cycles), Dichterliebe (Poet’s Love) and Frauenliebe und Leben (Woman’s Love and Life). Other Schumann music includes symphonies (such as the No 4 in D Minor) , chamber works (including the Piano Quintet in E Flat Major), and the overture to Lord Byron’s drama Manfred.
(Drawing by A Menzel)
Robert Schumann and his wife, Clara, a celebrated pianist
Rimsky-Korsakov was a member (along with Balakirev, Borodin, Cui and Mussorgsky) of the group of Russian nationalist composers known as The Mighty Handful (or The Five). Rimsky-Korsakov music includes: operas; symphonies; thetone poem, Sheherazade; the symphonic suite, Capriccio espagnol; songs; and chamber music. The Flight of the Bumblebee from his opera, The Legend of Tsar Saltan is also well-known.
Johann Strauss, the Younger
Known as the Waltz King, Strauss wrote over 150 Viennese waltzes, including An der schönen blauen Donau (The Blue Danube) and Geschichten aus dem Wienerwald (Tales from the Vienna Woods). Other Strauss music includes operettas, such as Die Fledermaus (The Bat) and Der Zigeunerbaron (The Gypsy Baron), as well as many polkas and marches.
Johann Strauss II
A glittering waltz in Vienna, Austria in late 1800s. Strauss waltzes were enormously popular at such events.
Pyotr Ilich Tchaikovsky
Tchaikovsky was the most popular Russian composer of all time. He wrote three great ballets: Swan Lake, The Sleeping Beauty, and The Nutcracker. He also wrote operas, including Eugene Onegin, The Maid of Orleans, The Queen of Spades, and Iolanta. Tchaikovsky music also includes symphonies,concertos, tone poems (such as Romeo and Juliet and Francesca da Rimini), orchestral works (such as Capriccio italien and the 1812 Overture), and many songs.
Nadezdha von Meck,
a wealthy widow who was a
generous patron of Tchaikovsky
Italian operatic composer
Verdi wrote many operas including Nabucco, Rigoletto, Il Trovatore (The Troubador), La Traviata, Aïda, Otello, and Falstaff. Verdi music also includes church choral music such as his Requiem Mass, Ave Maria, Te Deum, and Stabat Mater.
German opera composer
Wagner wrote many operas including Der fliegende Holländer (The Flying Dutchman), Tannhäuser, Lohengrin, Tristan und Isolde (Tristan and Isolde), Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (The Mastersingers of Nuremberg) and Parsifal, as well as the opera cycle, Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung).
The major Stravinsky music successes include: the ballets L’oiseau de feu (The Firebird), Petruska and Le sacré du printemps (The Rite of Spring); the music-theatre piece The Soldier’s Tale; symphonies, concertos, chamber music and jazz music; the operas Oedipus Rex and The Rake’s Progress; and religious music including the Symphony of Psalms.
(Drawing by Pablo Picasso, 1920)
Shostakovich was a Soviet composer. Shostakovich music includes: the opera, Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk District (later revised as Katerina Ismailova); fifteen symphonies, such as the Fifth Symphony and the Leningrad Symphony; concertos; chamber music; ballet, film and theatre scores; choral and vocal music; and piano music.
ولد في سالزبورج بالنمسا وكان والده مؤلفًا موسيقيًا وعازفًا ماهرًا فتنبه إلى ما ظهر على الطفل من معالم الموهبة الكبيرة فأخذ يعلمه العزف، وفي السادسة بدأ الطفل يكتب أعمالاً صغيرة كان يعزفها في الحفلات التي يصطحبه والده إليها حتى لُقب “بالطفل المعجزة”، وذاعت شهرته في النمسا وخارجها.
ولما بلغ الثامنة اصطحبه والده في رحلة فنية إلى فيينا وميونيخ وباريس ولندن؛ حيث لاقى نجاحًا منقطع النظير واستقبله الملوك والأمراء بإعجاب بالغ، واستمرت هذه الرحلات الفنية إلى عواصم أوروبا حتى بلغ الثانية والعشرين، وتُوفيت والدته بينما كانت تصاحبه في رحلة إلى باريس؛ فحزن حزنًا شديدًا.
وعاد إلى النمسا واستقر في مدينة سالزبورج؛ حيث عمل في بلاط أحد الأساقفة الأثرياء، وكانت تقاليد ذلك العصر تضع الموسيقيين في مرتبة الخدم، وكان على الشاب موتسارت أن يأكل معهم وعلى مائدتهم بعد أن كان في حداثته يعزف في بلاطات الملوك والأمراء ويتلقى منهم المنح والهدايا.
وكان يحز في نفسه كثيرًا سوء معاملة الأسقف له، بينما يطلب منه أن يبدع في الحفلات ويتلألأ، وانتهى الأمر بأن طرده من خدمته إلا أن مؤلفاته وخاصة الأوبرات التي كتبها كانت قد عادت عليه بالشهرة وبعطف القيصر وكثير من النبلاء.
في هذا الوقت تقريبًا تعرف موتسارت على هايدن واستفاد كثيرًا من خبرته، خاصة في بلورة قالب “السوناتا” و”السيمفونية”؛ لأنه كان سابقًا عليه بحوالي 25 سنة.
وشهد هايدن بعبقرية موتسارت وأعلن لوالده أنه لم يعرف في حياته مؤلفًا موهوبًا مثله.
وتزوج موتسارت من سيدة عطوفة وموسيقية إلا أن نفقاتها المتزايدة كانت تخلق له المتاعب وتذيقه مرارة الحياة.. وفي سن الخامسة والثلاثين أصيب موتسارت بمرض “التيفود” ومات.